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Nuts and Diabetes 2

Women Who Eat Nuts or Peanut Butter Regularly Significantly Reduce Their Risk for Type 2 Diabetes. Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health have found that women who consume nuts or peanut butter five times per week or more, significantly lowered their risk for type 2 diabetes compared to those who never or rarely ate nuts or peanut butter. The reduced risk was independent of known risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and dietary factors. 

More than 83,000 women with no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or Nuts, from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital based, Nurses’ Health Study, were tracked for 16 years. The study participants were sent food frequency questionnaires on average of every four years between 1980 and 1996 that included information on their nut and peanut butter consumption. The participants also provided information via follow-up questionnaires about family history of diabetes, cigarette smoking, body weight and physical activity. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs after age 40. People with this type of diabetes do not produce adequate amounts of insulin for the needs of the body and/or cannot use insulin effectively.

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BWH Researchers Identify Antigen for Type 1 Diabetes

Human study potentially identifies immune target of disease; information could lead to new treatments and prevention Type 1 diabetes, diagnosed in children and adults, is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the pancreas no longer produces insulin. Diabetes, which ranks as the fifth-deadliest disease in the United States, has reached critical proportions affecting 18.2 million people or 6.3 percent of the population. To address what many consider a growing epidemic, scientists at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) and the Harvard Medical School (HMS) have focused their research on better understanding the mechanisms of the disease.

Revealing the results of an eight-year research project, BWH researchers may have identified part of the puzzle underlying the cause of type 1 diabetes. They have found a single antigen – insulin – that appears to trigger the body to attack its own insulin producing cells. Researchers can now use this information in clinical trials to determine if “turning off” our body’s immune response to the antigen could reduce the disease’s impact or eliminate its occurrence.
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Increase in Type 2 Diabetes Incidences Linked to U.S. Diet of
More Carbohydrates and Less Fiber

Multi-decade study reveals increased amounts of carbohydrates in food supply contributing to growing diabetes epidemic. Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) and colleagues have found that the increasing intake of refined carbohydrates in the form of corn syrup and declining fiber consumption closely paralleled the rising trend in diabetes prevalence in the United States. These factors, combined with modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and subsequent obesity in addition to marked changes in the amount of refined carbohydrates in the form of corn syrup in the food supply, contribute to this growing epidemic. The findings are published in the May 1, 2004 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

According to study author Simin Liu, MD, ScD of BWH and assistant professor of medicine Harvard Medical School, “There is growing evidence that the cause of type 2 diabetes is multi-factorial and, perhaps, even avoidable given our knowledge of the risk factors which include obesity, sedentary lifestyle and diet including refined carbohydrates and fiber intake. These linked factors need to be part of every physicians scrutiny when helping patients combat the epidemics of diabetes and obesity.”
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American Diabetes Association
The American Diabetes Association is the nation's leading nonprofit health organization providing diabetes research, information and advocacy. Founded in 1940, the American Diabetes Association conducts programs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, reaching more than 800 communities. Click here to find out what is happening in your area. The mission of the Association is to prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people affected by diabetes. To fulfill this mission, the American Diabetes Association funds research, publishes scientific findings, provides information and other services to people with diabetes, their families, health professionals and the public. The Association is also actively involved in advocating for scientific research and for the rights of people with diabetes.

Diabetes means that your blood glucose (often called blood sugar) is too high. Your blood always has some glucose in it because your body needs glucose for energy to keep you going. But too much glucose in the blood isn't good for your health. Glucose comes from the food you eat and is also made in your liver and muscles. Your blood carries the glucose to all the cells in your body. Insulin is a chemical (a hormone) made in a part of the body called the pancreas. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin helps the glucose from food get into your cells. If your body doesn't make enough insulin or if the insulin doesn't work the way it should, glucose can't get into your cells. It stays in your blood instead. Your blood glucose level then gets too high, causing you to have diabetes.

Diabetes UK
Diabetes UK is the leading charity working for people with diabetes. We fund research, campaign and help people to live with the condition. Our mission is to improve the lives of people with diabetes and to work towards a future without diabetes.

The main symptoms of diabetes are:

- increased thirst
- going to the loo all the time – especially at night
- extreme tiredness
- weight loss
- genital itching or regular episodes of thrush
- blurred vision.

Diabetes Health Economics Study Group
The DHESG seeks to enhance communication about economic issues in diabetes care, and establish collaborative efforts in the reporting and dissemination of diabetes economics research. This page provides a link to the activities of the study group as well as a number of Internet accessible resources related to the economic issues of diabetes and diabetes care.

Diabetes monitor
The mission of diabetes123 is to be the world leader in online diabetes care, improving the quality and reducing the cost of care by increasing the understanding of, and providing traditional and innovative products and services for, the treatment of all types of diabetes.

The Glycemic index
The glycemic index ranks foods on how they affect our blood glucose levels. This index measures how much your blood glucose increases in the two or three hours after eating. The glycemic index is about foods high in carbohydrates. Foods high in fat or protein don't cause your blood glucose level to rise much. The glycemic index is about the quality of the carbohydrates, not the quantity. A lot of people still think that it is plain table sugar that people with diabetes need to avoid. The experts used to say that, but the glycemic index shows that even complex carbohydrates, like baked potatoes, can be even worse. When you make use of the glycemic index to prepare healthy meals, it helps to keep your blood glucose levels under control. This is especially important for people with diabetes, although athletes and people who are overweight also stand to benefit from knowing about this relatively new concept in good nutrition.

Recent studies of large numbers of people with diabetes show that those who keep their blood glucose under tight control best avoid the complications that this disease can lead to. Most experts agree that what works best for people with diabetes—and probably the rest of us as well—is regular exercise, little saturated or trans fat (partially hydrogenated oils), and a high-fiber diet.

International diabetes federation
The International Diabetes Federation is the only global advocate for people with diabetes and their healthcare providers. We are a non-governmental organization in official relations with the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. Our mission is to work with our member associations to enhance the lives of people with diabetes. Since we first took up the diabetes cause in 1950, we have evolved into an umbrella organization of 185 member associations in 145 countries.

Canadian diabetes association
The goal of the Canadian Diabetes Association's web site is to become THE online resource for people with, and affected by, diabetes and for healthcare professionals treating those affected by the disease. Charles Best, the co-discover of insulin, had a vision. Very early on he saw that the growing number of Canadians with diabetes were going to require an organization to serve their needs. In the late 1940's, the Diabetic Association of Ontario was formed. As the provinces and territories formed their own associations, it became clear that if the provincial branches combined their resources they could more effectively serve their membership. This culminated in the formation of Canadian Diabetes Association in 1953. With over 150 branches across the country, the Canadian Diabetes Association is the largest non-governmental supporter of diabetes research, education and advocacy. Together with its sections and councils, its employees and volunteers, the Canadian Diabetes Association plays an invaluable role in the everyday lives of the over 2 million Canadians who live with diabetes.

American Association of Diabetes Educators
Founded in 1973, the American Association of Diabetes Educators is a multi-disciplinary professional membership organization dedicated to advancing the practice of diabetes self-management training and care as integral components of health care for persons with diabetes, and lifestyle management for the prevention of diabetes. Diabetes self-management training, also called diabetes education, gives patients the knowledge and skills to be able to effectively manage their diabetes on a daily basis. Through a collaborative process, diabetes educators help their patients identify barriers, facilitate problem solving and develop coping strategies. AADE assists its members and the larger healthcare community in treating people with diabetes and those who are in danger of contracting the disease.

Children with diabetes
The on-line community for kids, families and adults with diabetes.The
mission of Children with Diabetes is to promote understanding of the care
and treatment of diabetes, especially in children; to increase awareness of the need for unrestricted diabetes care for children at school and daycare; to support families living with diabetes; and to promote understanding of research into a cure.

Diabetes and me
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Diabetes can be associated with serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications.

Types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes may account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes may include autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors.

Type 2 diabetes was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. It usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, and some Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents.

Gestational diabetes is a form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and American Indians. It is also more common among obese women and women with a family history of diabetes. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes requires treatment to normalize maternal blood glucose levels to avoid complications in the infant. After pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 20% to 50% chance of developing diabetes in the next 5-10 years.

Other specific types of diabetes result from specific genetic conditions (such as maturity-onset diabetes of youth), surgery, drugs, malnutrition, infections, and other illnesses. Such types of diabetes may account for 1% to 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Over 18 million Americans have diabetes, and another 41 million adults ages 40 to 74 have pre-diabetes. Whether you just found out you have diabetes or have been dealing with it for years, you can control your diabetes and live a long, active life. If you are at risk or have pre-diabetes, you can take small steps to prevent the disease.

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